Images, figures and facsimile


Many EpiDoc projects will need to refer users to images of the text-bearing objects treated by the projects, and to other relevant imagery that provides context or comparison. Such images may be photographs or drawings ("copies") of the objects themselves or of intermediary derivatives like squeezes, rubbings, and ink-transfers (estampages), as well as other kinds of maps, plans, and illustrations. The TEI provides a variety of mechanisms for making reference to such visual materials, whether published alongside the textual material produced by the project or published by third parties online or in print.

Encoding Digital Images

When an EpiDoc project publishes digital images of an inscribed object alongside textual material, the <facsimile> element should be used to list, link to, and describe the images, and to connect them to the textual and analytic material marked up elsewhere in the XML. The encoding approach outlined in the initial sections of the TEI Guidelines, chapter 11 "Representation of Primary Sources" should be followed by EpiDoc projects where appropriate. This portion of the TEI Guidelines also describes the use of the <sourceDoc> element, which should be used instead of <facsimile> when a project has comprehensive photographic documentation for a text-bearing object, and when the goals of the project and the character of the text call for a digital facsimile that contains a documentary transcription tied to the visible layout in the photographs.

Using the <facsimile> element

The following examples, adapted from the Inscriptions of Aphrodisias and from the Corpus of the Inscriptions of Campā, illustrate the application of the <facsimile> element (and some of its optional subordinate elements) in an EpiDoc context. Additional examples drawn from the TEI Guidelines may also provide helpful encoding patterns.

 <surface n="i">
  <desc>Face of inscribed base</desc>
  <graphic url="">
   <desc>Photograph (1972)</desc>
  <graphic url="">
  <desc>Top of base</desc>
  <graphic url="">
   <desc>Photograph (1994)</desc>
  <desc>Inscription on head of statue</desc>
  <graphic url="">
   <desc>Drawing (2001)</desc>
 <graphic xml:id="fac1"

  <desc>Photograph of the front of the sculptural stela whose back bears
     inscription <ptr target="#inv-general"/>. Taken in the exhibition room
     at the Trà Kiệu church by Arlo Griffiths on <date when="20111123"/>.</desc>
 <graphic xml:id="fac2"

  <desc>Photograph of inscription <ptr target="#inv-general"/>. Taken in the
     exhibition room at the Trà Kiệu church by Arlo Griffiths on <date when="20111123"/>.</desc>
 <graphic xml:id="fac3"

  <desc>Photograph of EFEO estampage n. 2129.</desc>

Using the <zone> element

Within <facsimile>, EpiDoc follows default TEI in allowing <surface> to contain the <zone> element, which defines any two-dimensional area within <surface>. This permits the editor to identify a section of the support and to associate it with an area within the facsimile in which it is represented. A zone may be of any shape: a rectangular zone can be defined using ulx, uly, lrx, and lry, while a polygonal zone can be defined using points. These same attributes can also be used on the <surface> element itself. More complex examples can be found in the TEI Guidelines.

  <desc>Face of the inscribed altar.</desc>
  <graphic url="../images/a0001.jpg">
   <desc>Photograph (2014)</desc>
  <zone ulx="240uly="25lrx="400"
Column B of the inscribed

Citing Externally Published Images of the Text-bearing Object

When signalling the availability of images published externally to the EpiDoc project (whether available on-line or only in print), editors may prefer to treat references to these images as bibliographic citations. The following example adapts conventions used by the Digital Corpus of Literary Papyrology project for this purpose, subtyping the standard EpiDoc div with type = "bibliography".

<div type="bibliography"

  <bibl type="printed">G. Cavallo - H.Maehler, Greek Bookhands, pl.10b</bibl>
  <bibl type="online">
   <title level="m">Berliner Papyrusdatenbank</title>: "<title level="a">P.
       11629 a+b: Fragmente aus Kallimachos, Aitia I und III.</title>," <ptr target=""/>

See also:

Other pages describing <div>:

Other pages describing <desc>:

Other pages describing <bibl>:

Other pages describing <date>:

Responsibility for this section

  1. Gabriel Bodard, author
  2. Tom Elliott, author
  3. Arlo Griffiths, author
  4. Charlotte Tupman, author

EpiDoc version: 9.1

Date: 2019-10-31