Appendix: Glossary


Crosswalk, crosswalking
A general term for moving data from the format of one encoding scheme or database to another. In EpiDoc terms, it often refers to the dynamic transformation of the semantic distinctions of epigraphic and papyrological editions between EpiDoc XML and one or more database of texts or catalogue records. These "crosswalks" may take place in either direction, or in some cases in both directions and reversible without loss of information. Prominent crosswalks performed by the EpiDoc community include: the conversion of IRT from EpiDoc to the database format of EDH; the migration of the Duke Databank, HGV and APIS content to EpiDoc as part of the project (the HGV-to-EpiDoc is lossless and bidirectional); the current conversion of the EAGLE constituent databases into EpiDoc XML as part of the EAGLE Europeana project.
Encoding in this context means the conversion of human-readable information into machine-readable information, e.g. in the form of XML.
EpiDoc Example Stylesheets
Software code, written in the Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL or XSLT), and intended for use in transforming EpiDoc XML files into other formats (chiefly text and HTML) using a range of standard typographical conventions (e.g., Leiden). Documentation and further information are to be found on the Stylesheets page in the EpiDoc Wiki.
EpiDoc Schema
A formally structured set of rules that tells an XML editor or processor what elements, attributes and other content are available in an EpiDoc file and how these are to be structured. Documentation and further information are to be found on the Schema page in the EpiDoc Wiki.
Leiden, Leiden Conventions
A set of rules for the encoding of classical epigraphic and papyrological texts using simple, arbitrary and unambiguous symbols to represent editorial observations and interventions, e.g. '[' and ']' for lost text (restored or lacuna). There are several minor variations on Leiden now in use (Krummrey-Panciera and PETRAE perhaps prominent among them). A good summary of Leiden can be found at
Leiden+ (Leiden-plus)
Leiden+ is a system of text markup, based very closely on Leiden but including new signs and combinations for complex apparatus markup, for example, devised for the Papyrological Editor's "tags-free" editing environment. Full description and documentation of Leiden+ is at
Markup language in a way to encode a text's contents in order to enable different ways of representation and e.g. to extract information to be collected for indexes, or search tools (cf. Encoding).
"Markup" is sometimes also used as shorthand for the Markup List, an email list for the discussion of EpiDoc and other ancient text markup matters.
The Morpheus morphological analysis service is a tool originally developed by Perseus, versions of which are in use by and the TLG for lemmatizing their Greek texts. The Perseus version of the tool also caters for Latin and Arabic lemmatization. (More information at Bamboo and Perseus.)
Papyrological Navigator (PN)
The search and browse interface of the platform, which incorporates the DDbDP, HGV, APIS and other papyrological databases.
Papyrological editor (PE)
The text-editing, management and editorial workflow tool of the platform, allowing community contribution to and emendation of the corpus of documentary papyrology, notably via the tags-free Leiden+ editing interface.
The Perseus Digital Library Project studies the progression from physical to digital libraries and offers an increasing number of texts. Searches and a number of tools can be used directly on the website while reading, e.g. the Morpheus dictionary tool for Greek and Latin texts.
A gazetteer of places and place names from the ancient world, building on the project that produced the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Pleiades assigns unique identifiers to all places, enabling a web of Linked Data such as that curated by the Pelagios project. Pleiades can be found at
Text Encoding Initiative. Guidelines and tools for the encoding of literary and historical texts in XML. It is the format on which EpiDoc is based. The latest TEI Guidelines can be found online at
World Wide Web Consortium
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international community developing standards to be used across the Internet. The public can take part, but there is also full-time staff and entire organizations that are members of the endeavour. For further information, see:
Extensible Markup Language. A text-based encoding format that allows the structured encoding of text or data in human- and machine-readable format. It is the technical basis of both TEI and EpiDoc, and is a standard maintained by the World-wide Web Consortium. See for the spec and further description.
Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations. XSLT is a language that can convert XML documents into either different XML or other forms, e.g. the HTML format used for websites, the import format for a database, or the Open Document Format behind a word-processing document. The EpiDoc Stylesheets are an example of XSLT used to transform EpiDoc XML to common display formats. A useful introduction to XSLT is offered by W3 Schools.

Responsibility for this section

  1. Gabriel Bodard, author
  2. Laura Löser, author
  3. Tom Elliott, author

EpiDoc version: 9.4

Date: 2022-10-07